3132幸运的彩

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作者:尤静波 来源:《人民音乐》 点击: 发布时间:2017年03月22日

  

尤静波

 

 

3132幸运的彩  2014nian11yue8ri,younanjingshifandaxueyinlexueyuanheshujiayishuyuanxiaoyinlexueyuanjizhongguoyinlejiaxiehuiliuxingyinlexuehuigongtongzhubande“‘zhongguoliuxingyinlexianzhuangyufazhanqushi’jiaodianwentiyantaohui”zainanjingshifandaxuezhaokai。yantaohuiyaoqingle30duoweixuezhe、jiaoshoucanhui,duizhongguoliuxingyinledexianzhuangyufazhanqushijinxingletaolun。

3132幸运的彩  bizhezuoweishouyaozhezhiyicanjialebencihuiyi,zaihuishangzhuweixuezhedouchanshulezijidedudaojianjie,congduogejiaodulunshuleyuliuxingyinlexiangguandewenti。huihoubizheduicicihuiyidefayanjinxinglesikao。bizherenwei,dangxiazuizhongyaodewentishiyaogaoqingchu“shenmeshiliuxingyinle”dewenti。zheigewentibugaoqingchu,houxudeyanjiukenenghuishiqufangxiang。tongshiyeyaonongqingliuxingyinledewenhuatezheng,zheiduihouxudeliuxingyinleyanjiuyejuyoudaoxiangyiyi。

  zaihuishang,nanjingshifandaxueyinlexueyuanxuyuanyongjiaoshoutichu:“dajiayaogaoqing‘liuxingyinle’he‘liuxingdeyinle’dequbie”。bizherenweizheishiyigefeichangzhongyaodewenti,zheiliangzhedejiexianruofenbuqingchu,duiliuxingyinleyanjiujiangshiyigehendadezuai。

  xuyuanyongjiaoshoutichu“liuxingyinle”shizhuanyoumingci,er“liuxingdeyinle”zhongde“liuxing”shixingrongci。bizhefeichangzantongxujiaoshoudeguandian,bingduiqijinxinglejinyibusikao。bizherenweiyaoxianggaoqingchushenmeshiliuxingyinlebixuyaoqufenzheiliangzhedeguanxi。

3132幸运的彩  bizherenwei,liuxingyinleyou“xiayi”he“guangyi”zhifen。“liuxingyinle”zuoweizhuanyoumingci,tashixiayidegainian;erzuowei“liuxingdeyinle”lailijiezeshiguangyigainian。erdangxiayinqishehuiguangfanguanzhu,yinfadajiataolundeliuxingyinle,zhuyaoshizhixiayidegainian,jidangxiabeidazhongguangfanjieshoude,yiliuxinggequweizhuyaobiaoxianfangshidejinxiandailiuxingyinle。yinci,yaoxianggaoqingchushenmeshiliuxingyinle,shouxianyaoweiliuxingyinledegainianjinxingdingyi。

  一、流行音乐的狭义概念

3132幸运的彩  liuxingyinleshi19shijixiabanye,suizhexiandaigongyewenmingdexingqierfazhanqilai,bingyu20shijizhujianzouxiangfanrongdeyizhongjuyoudoushixing、shangyexinghedazhongxingtezhengdeyinlewenhua。bizherenwei,liuxingyinleshidoushizhongdeminjianyinle,tadefazhanyidoushiweizhongxin,danyoujuyouziyuzile、kouerxiangchuandengminjianyinledemouxietezheng。

  zuoweiyigezhuanyoumingci,liuxingyinleyushangshiji20niandaicongoumeichuanruzhongguo,shiyingwenpopular musicdeyiyi。congyingwenshiyilaikan,tashiyizhongliuxingde、dazhongde、tongsude、weiyibanrenjieshoude、shouhuanyingdeyinle。juci,liuxingyinleshiyizhongjuyoushehuipujixingdetongsuyinle,shirongyizaishehuishangchanshengguangfanyingxiangdedazhongyinle。

3132幸运的彩  jutilaijiang,liuxingyinleshiyizhongrongheleouzhoubairenyinlehefeizhouheirenyinle,yimeiguoweizhongxinerzhujianfazhanqilaideyinletixi。huaneryanzhi,liuxingyinleshiyoubulusi(blues)、jueshile(jazz)、yaogunle(rock’ n’ roll)、suoeryinle(soul)dengmeiguodazhongyinlejiagouqilai,bingcongzhongpaishengchulaideyinletixi,keyifanzhijazz、rock、soul、blues、reggae、rap、hip-hop、disco、new agedeng20shijihouxingqidedoushihuadazhongyinle。yinci,liuxingyinleyanjiubixulizuyumeiguodazhongyinletixi,ruotuolizheigetixi,womendeyanjiuyujingjiuhuiguliyushijieliuxingyinlezhuliuzhenyingzhiwai。

  二、流行音乐的广义概念

  ruguojiangxiayide“liuxingyinle”gainiangaoqingchule,neimeguangyide“liuxingyinle”gainianyejiusuizhiqingxi。bizherenweiguangyideliuxingyinlejiushi“liuxingdeyinle”,shibaokuoxiayi“liuxingyinle”zaineide,geshiqizaishehuishangguangweiliuxingdeyinle。jiyuzheigegainian,tangshi、songciyekekanzuoshiguangyigainianshangdeliuxingyinle;beiduofende《zhiailisi》yeshiliuxingyinle;《liangzhu》neijiugengshiliuxingyinlele,erqieshishijiejideliuxingyinle。

3132幸运的彩  liuxingyinledeguangyihexiayijiexianyidanhuaqing,liuxingyinledeyanjiufangxiangjiuhuiqingxihenduo,zhishaowomenzhidaowomensuoyanjiudeliuxingyinlekefoulizushijie。ruguozheigegainianbuqing,dajiadouguanqimenlaijiangtangshi、songcizuoweiliuxingyinlelaiyanjiu,zheijianghennanrongrushijieliuxingyinleyanjiudezhuliulingyu。

  三、流行音乐的文化特征

  “erzhan”qianliuxingyinledezhuliuzhendishimeiguo,“erzhan”housuizheshijiexingejudexingcheng,liuxingyinlezaishijiefanweineichanshengzhongyaoyingxiang,bingyimeiguoweizhongxinxingchengshijieliuxingyinlefazhanquan,zhujianxingchengyizhongyimeiguodazhongyinlexingtaiweijichu,yugeguominzuyinlewenhuaxiangronghedeyizhongduoyuanxingliuxingwenhua。huaneryanzhi,liuxingyinlezuoweiyizhongyimeiguodazhongyinleyuyanweijichudeyinlewenhua,zoudaozhongguoyinrongruzhongguowenhuaerchengweizhongguoliuxingyinle,zoudaoribenyinrongruribenwenhuaerchengweiribenliuxingyinle,yicierlun,yingguo、deguo、baxi、hanguo……,shijieliuxingyinledemianmaoyinciergaibian。suizheliuxingyinledequanqiuhuafazhan,tadewenhuahanyiriyikuanfan,congerzhujianxingchengyizhongyimeiguodazhongyinlexingtaiweitongyibiaozhun,danyoujuyougeminzuwenhuatesedeshijieliuxingyinlewenhuatixi。

  1.doushixing

3132幸运的彩  liuxingyinleshidoushizhongdeminjianyinle,tadefazhanyidoushiweizhongxin,danyoujuyouquanminhuadedazhongchuanbotedian。zongguanshijieliuxingyinledelishi,qifazhanzhongxinzhuyaodoujizhongzaidoushi。

  doushidaibiaozhexianjindeshengchanli、wenhua、kejishuipingheshenghuofangshi,doushiyibandoushidiqujingji、zhengzhijiwenhuazhongxin。doushidazhongdeshenghuoshuipingxiangduijiaogao,tamendewuzhitiaojianbijiaochongyu,yinciduijingshenshenghuojuyoujiaogaozhuiqiu,erliuxingyinlesuofanyingdeticaiheneirongzhengshigeshidaidazhongshenghuoyuqinggandexiezhao,yincifeichangfuhedoushidazhongdejingshenxuqiu。yinci,liuxingyinledeshengzhanghuanjingdouyidoushiweizhongxin。

  liru,jueshilefayuandixinaoerliangshimeiguoluyisianneizhoushoufu,meiguoxiangcunyinlefayuandinashenweiershitiannaxizhoushoufu,yaogunledefayuandimengfeisishitiannaxizhoudedierdachengshi,yijizhijiage、niuyue、luoshanjizheixiedoushijunyinjubeidoushihuatezheng,yinerxianhouchengweimeiguoliuxingyinledefazhanzhongxin。meiguoliuxingyinleshishangdezhongyaochaoliu,jihudoulibukaiyishangzheixiechengshi。

3132幸运的彩  zairu,zhongguoliuxingyinleweiheyuanyushanghai?yinwei20shiji20niandaishanghaishidangshizhongguozuijuguojidadoushimianmaodechengshizhiyi。yindazhongshenghuoshuipingjiaogao,shoudaoouzhouyinlehemeiguodazhongyinledeyingxiang,shimindewenhuashenghuokaishiliuluchuxianduiliuxingyinledexuqiu,yinciliuxingyinlezaishanghaidansheng。cihou,xianggang、beijing、guangzhoudengdiluxuchengweizhongguoliuxingyinlefazhandezhongxinchengshi,yedouyinweizheixiechengshidedoushihuatezhengweiliuxingyinledefazhantigongleturang。

  youcikejian,liuxingyinledefazhanyidoushiweizhongxin,bingyicixiangzhongxiaochengshijinongcunchuanbohekuosan。yinci,renheyizhongliuxingyinlebuguanqiyuanyuhechu,ruoxiangchengweiliuxingyinle,qibiranyaojinglicongxiangcunhuijudaodoushidelicheng,zheishiliuxingyinlexingchengdebiranguilv。

  ruguodangnianlijinhuichuangzuode《maomaoyu》,bushiyinweidanshengyushanghaiershizaitadehunanlaojia,ruobushirongrujueshilezheiyimeiguodazhongyinleyuansu,《maomaoyu》henkenengzhishiyishouminjianxiaoqu。zairu,bulusibenshimeiguoheirenminge,yuanshimeiguonanfangheirenzailaodongshiyanchangdeminge,zhisuoyinenggouchengweiliuxingyinle,shiyinweizaimougeshiqidaliangheirenyongjinchengshi(jinruzhijiagehemengfeisi),bulusisuizhibeidairuchengshi,zaidoushizhongjingguojishiniandefazhanzhujianyanbianchengliuxingyinle。zairu,meiguoxiangcunyinle,yuanweimeiguobairenminjianyinle,zuichuzhishizainanfangnongyediqufazhan,houlaitongguoguangbochuanjinchengshi,zuihouzainashenweierzhaodaogenjudi,zaidoushizhongtazhujiancongyizhongminjianyinleyanbianweijuyoumeiguoshuxingdebairenliuxingyinledaibiao。

  zongzhi,liuxingyinledefazhanhuanjinglibukaidoushi,zhiyouzaijingji、wenhuadoubijiaofadadedachengshizhong,liuxingyinlecainenggoudeyishengzhanghefanrong。

  2.shangyexing

  liuxingyinleshiyizhonggongyehuadeyinleshangpin。zuoweishangpin,liuxingyinledeshengchanfangzaishengchanyinlechanpinshi,huijinkenengdequmanzuxiaofeizhedexuqiu,tongshiyejiangzuidachengdudecongxiaofeizheshenshanghuoquliyi。yinci,liuxingyinleheshichangxingweijinmixianglian,tadechuanbolibukaishangyehuadeyingxiaohetuiguangfangshi。tebieshizaidangxiashichangjingjidachaozhong,liuxingyinledeshengchanheshichangxuqiujinmitongbu,zhiyoubaozhengshichangdeqiantixia,caiyoukenengtigaoyinlepinzhihewenhuaneihan,“yangchunbaixue”deyinlechanpinhennanchengweizhenzhengdeliuxingyinle。

3132幸运的彩  jueshileheyaogunleshiliuxingyinledeliangdazhizhu,zaitamenfazhanguochengzhong,yiqieshichangxingweidoushiweiraoshangyemudeerzhankaide。zaiqidanshengzhichu,doumingxiandexianshichuletamendeshangyexing。liru,jueshilezaidanshengzhichu,tashihenduoleshidemoushenggongju。youyujueshilezuichufayuanyuxinaoerliangdesituoliweier“hongdengqu”,houlaiyouzaijiuba、yezonghuidedaofazhan,yincijueshileshileshimenchushoujijiyuan、jiuba、yezonghuixiaofeizhedeyinleshangpin,tamenyiyinlelaihuanquliyi。zairuyaogunle,zaoqiyaogunledehenduozuopindoushiheirenjiezoubulusi(r&b)de“fanchangban”,erdangchuchangpiangongsijinxingfanchangdemudechuncuishiweileyingqushangyeliyi,meiyouyijiachangpiangongsishiweilechuangzaoyaogunleerjinxingluzhichangpiande。

  zongguanliuxingyinledefazhanlicheng,geguoliuxingyinleyugaiguodejingjishilishichengzhengbide。zaifadaguojia,liuxingyinleyichengweiguominjingjidezhongyaolaiyuan。liru,ruidiandeabbaleduizai70niandaizuihuihuangshiqi,tamenweiguojiachuangxiadecaizhengshouyichaoguoletamendewoerwoqichegongye;yingguode“pitoushi”ledui(the beatles)zai1965nianhuodexiangzhengyingguozhengfuzuigaorongyudebuliediandiguoxunzhang,zaicaifangzhongleduizhuchangyuehan·lienongrenwei,qizhuyaoyuanyinkenengshiyinweitamendeyinlechukouliangweiguojiachuangzaolejudadejingjixiaoyi;zairumaikeer·jiekexun,1984nianmotacongzhuanji《zhanlizhe》dexiaoshouzhongzhuanle3qianwan,congqitayouguan“chanpinkaifa”zhonghuo5qianwan;1991nian,jiekexunyusuonigongsiqiandinglejiazhishiyimeiyuandezhangqiduomeitihetong[1]。yishanglizishuoming,liuxingyinlezaiwuzhiwenminggaodufazhandejintian,tabujinduirenmendejingshenshenghuochanshengzhongyaoyingxiang,tongshiyezaishehuijingjizhongxianshichuletadejudashangyejiazhi。

3132幸运的彩  zongshangsuoshu,zailiuxingyinlezhongsuichukejiantadeshangyexingxingwei,yinci,liuxingyinledeshichangzhanyoulvjiangjuedingtadefazhanquxiang。yangelaijiang,meiyoushichangdeliuxingyinlechanpin,hennanchengweiyijianchenggongdeshangpin。

  3.dazhongxing

3132幸运的彩  “liuxingyinle”deyingwenpopular musicyoukeyiwei“dazhongyinle”,taleshi20shijiyilaidazhongwenhuadezhongyaodaibiaoxingshizhiyi。“dazhongwenhuashizhiminzhuhua、gongyehua、shichanghuashehuizhongweiputongminzhongsuocanyuhexiaofeideyiqiewuzhi、fuhao、guannianhehuodong。huozhejianhuaweiyijuhua,dazhongwenhuajiushixiandaishehuizhongputongminzhongdeshenghuofangshi”[2],erliuxingyinlezeshixiandaishehuizhongzuinengfanyingputongminzhongshenghuofangshideyinlexingshi。yinci,dazhongxingshiliuxingyinlefeichangzhongyaodeshuxing。yinweiyizhongyinleruomeiyoudazhongjichu,jiubuhuiyinqishehuideguanzhuhesikao;liuxingyinlezaishehuishangzhisuoyiyinqijudayingxiang,yinfashehuigejiedeguangfanguanzhu,shouxianshiyinweitadedazhongxing。yishoufengmideyinlezuopin,shouxianyinqishehuiguanzhudekendingbushitadeyinlejifa,ershitadeshouzhongshuliangheshouzhongqunti,zhiyoudangshouzhongdadaoyidingchengdu,yinledejiazhicaihuideyitixian。ruomeiyoushouzhong,tanhewenhuayuneihan?

3132幸运的彩  liuxingyinledefazhanshisuizhexiandaikejidefazhanerriyifanrong,tadechuanboduixiangbushoudiyuxinghequntixingdexianzhi,juyouquanminhuatezheng。zuoweiyinleshouzhongyujingxiade“dazhong”kelijieweimeiyoushouguozhuanyeyinlexunliandeyibanminzhong。yinci,liuxingyinledechuangzuo、biaoyan、chuanbodouyinggaijiyudazhongxinlidepubianxingguilv,renheyigediquheshidaideliuxingyinle,ruoxiangdedaoguangfanliuxing,bixufuhegaidiqudedazhongwenhuabeijing。ji:liuxingyinlededazhongxingshoudaowenhuabeijingdezhiyue。

3132幸运的彩  jueshileshimeiguodazhongyinlededaibiao,dantazaizhongguobingbudazhong,neishiyinweizhongmeiwenhuachayierzhi;baobo·dilun(bob dylan)deyinlezaimeiguojinrenjiezhi,yecenglvhuogelaimeijiang,danyintasuogechangdeneirongdoushijiyumeiguoshehuiwenhuabeijing,yincizaizhongguobingbudazhong;pengke(punk)cengyushangshiji70niandaizaiyingguofengmiyishibingzaixifangshehuichanshengguangfanyingxiang,danyinqizaixifangshehuizhiduxiadansheng,binghedangshiriyishuailuodeyingguoshehuibeijingmiqiexiangguan,yineryinfaqiangliedeshehuifanpanxing,dangtachuanzhizhongguo,yinqijiduandefanpanxingyuzhongguodezhuliuyishixingtaixiangbei,yinerbianyuanhua。zhoujielunde“zhongguofeng”zuopinzhisuoyiguangshouzhongguodazhongdexiai,qizhuyaoyuanyinshi“zhongguofeng”dewenhuayujingwanquanfuhezhongguodazhongdeshenmeiqingqu,yinerchengweijuyouzhongguoyinlebiaoqiandedazhongwenhuadaibiao。daolanghefenghuangchuanqideyinleyecengfengmizhongguo,qizhuyaoyuanyinyeshiyinweitamendewenhuayujingyuzhongguodazhongshenmeixuqiuxiangwenhe。yinci,liuxingyinlededazhongxingshijiyubentuwenhuabeijingeryanshengdeyizhongwenhuashuxing。

  结 语

  zongshangsuoshu,womenxianjieduandeyanjiuyinggaifenweiliangbu:diyibuxujiaqiangliuxingyinledebentixingyanjiu,jiduimeiguodazhongyinlejutixingtaideyanjiu,zhijizhibifangnengbaizhanbudai,yanjiumeiguoliuxingyinlebushimude,ershiweilerangwomengengqingchuzijideliuxingyinleheshijiedejuli;dierbuyinggaikuodaliuxingyinledeyanjiufanwei,jiaqiangzhongguoliuxingyinledewenhuayanjiu,baokuoyinlederenwenxing、lishixing、shehuixing、shangyexingdengfanweideyanjiu。lizuliuxingyinlebentizhishangdebentuxingyanjiu,shizhongguoliuxingyinleyanjiudefazhanfangxiang。

3132幸运的彩  jianyuci,womendeliuxingyinlefazhanyinggailizushijieliuxingyinledahuanjing,yikaobentuxingwenhualiliang,rongruminzuxingyinleyuyan,shiwomendeliuxingyinlechengweijuyoufengfuneihanhezhongguotesededazhongwenhuabiaozhi。zheiyangwomendeliuxingyinleyanjiucainengchengweishijieliuxingyinleyanjiulingyudezhongyaozuchengbufen。

  cankaowenxian:

3132幸运的彩  [1] zhongzilin.yaogunledelishiyufengge[m].beijing:renminyinlechubanshe,1998:185.

  [2] liuzixiong .yanyugang[m].dazhongwenhuatonglun(dierban)[m].zhongguoguangbodianshichubanshe,2013:15.

  (yuanzaiyu《renminyinle》2015niandi4qi)

  春晚
吴俊余  江映蓉  黄景行 艺术节
  
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